The history of Church & Dwight:
In 1846 John Dwight and Dr. Austin Church began manufacturing bicarbonate of soda, known as "Baking Soda", in the kitchen of Dr. Church. In 1847 the John Dwight and Company was formed and "Cow Brand" was created as the trademark of Dwight’s Saleratus (Saleratus is an aerated salt). Cow Brand was chosen due to the use of sour milk and saleratus for baking.
The baking soda was packaged in one pound portions for sale. The product was so popular that larger facilities were needed to meet demand. Dr. Church created a partnership with his sons, James and Dwight, and the firm of Church & Company was born and the "Arm & Hammer" name was used for its trademark.
The company we now know as Church & Dwight Co., Inc., was created by the descendants of the two companies in 1896. The use of baking soda has expanded from the kitchen and is used as cleaning agents, additives to tooth paste, and in many, many more products.
The company logo:
In the 1860's the "Arm & Hammer" symbol was used by James A. Church, Dr Church's son, for his spice and mustard business, Vulcan Spice Mills. The symbol represented Vulcan, known in roman mythology as the "god of fire" who crafted ornamants and arms for the gods and heroes using a hammer and anvil. When James joined his father's company in 1867 he brought the symbol, now known as the Arm & Hammer trademark, and placed it on packages of baking soda.